Alternatives to research papers

The replacement of animal testing and animal experimentation with nonanimal techniques often yields both ethical and technical advantages. Clinical, epidemiological, and pathological investigations remain the foundation of research on human disease. Although animals are often used when ethical or practical issues have precluded the study of humans, the evolving scientific understanding of the complexity of animals and of their social and psychological needs underscores longstanding ethical concerns about their use in laboratory science.

ICCVAM welcomes submissions of relevant new, revised, and alternative test methods from any of its stakeholders. However, to maximize the potential for effective implementation of new methods or approaches, ICCVAM only evaluates and prepares recommendations for methods and approaches that align with ICCVAM agency needs and priorities. Therefore, test method developers are encouraged to consult with NICEATM and ICCVAM throughout the test method research, development, translation, and validation process, as well as during preparation of submissions. These interactions ensure that:

The Centre for Policy Alternatives (CPA) was formed in the firm belief that there is an urgent need to strengthen institution and capacity-building for good governance and conflict transformation in Sri Lanka and that non-partisan civil society groups have an important and constructive contribution to make to this process. The primary role envisaged for the Centre in the field of public policy is a pro-active and interventionary one, aimed at the dissemination and advocacy of policy alternatives for non-violent conflict resolution and democratic governance. Accordingly, the work of the Centre involves a major research component through which the policy alternatives advocated are identified and developed.

Although all of the frameworks reviewed focus on alternatives assessments for chemicals of concern, some are more focused on specific jurisdictions, sectors, or issues. Because of this focus, some frameworks are not as comprehensive as others with regard to including all process components. For example, a number of frameworks were developed as part of workplace health and safety initiatives, including research projects, programs, and regulatory directives. Among these initiatives are Quinn et al.’s Pollution Prevention–Occupational Safety and Health (P2OSH) framework, which was developed for use in worksite intervention programs; OSHA’s Transitioning to Safer Chemicals Toolkit, which provides web-based voluntary guidance on alternatives assessment for employers and workers; and the Technical Rules for Hazardous Substances 600 (TRGS 600) from the BAuA, which provides guidance to employers to meet their regulatory obligation regarding substitution processes for chemicals of concern ( BAuA AGS 2008 ;  Quinn et al. 2006 ;  OSHA 2013 ). The strength of these alternatives assessment frameworks is their specific focus on the occupational setting. However, given that some of these frameworks do not address environmental impacts such as ecological toxicity, risk trade-offs could occur (see  Table 2 ). Others, such as the United Nations Environment Program’s (UNEP’s) Persistent Organic Pollutants Review Committee for the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), focus specifically on related environmental impacts, such as ecological toxicity ( Table 2 ), and other life-cycle considerations, such as impacts on greenhouse gas emissions or ozone depletion, rather than on occupational impacts ( UNEP 2009 ).

Alternatives to research papers

alternatives to research papers

Although all of the frameworks reviewed focus on alternatives assessments for chemicals of concern, some are more focused on specific jurisdictions, sectors, or issues. Because of this focus, some frameworks are not as comprehensive as others with regard to including all process components. For example, a number of frameworks were developed as part of workplace health and safety initiatives, including research projects, programs, and regulatory directives. Among these initiatives are Quinn et al.’s Pollution Prevention–Occupational Safety and Health (P2OSH) framework, which was developed for use in worksite intervention programs; OSHA’s Transitioning to Safer Chemicals Toolkit, which provides web-based voluntary guidance on alternatives assessment for employers and workers; and the Technical Rules for Hazardous Substances 600 (TRGS 600) from the BAuA, which provides guidance to employers to meet their regulatory obligation regarding substitution processes for chemicals of concern ( BAuA AGS 2008 ;  Quinn et al. 2006 ;  OSHA 2013 ). The strength of these alternatives assessment frameworks is their specific focus on the occupational setting. However, given that some of these frameworks do not address environmental impacts such as ecological toxicity, risk trade-offs could occur (see  Table 2 ). Others, such as the United Nations Environment Program’s (UNEP’s) Persistent Organic Pollutants Review Committee for the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), focus specifically on related environmental impacts, such as ecological toxicity ( Table 2 ), and other life-cycle considerations, such as impacts on greenhouse gas emissions or ozone depletion, rather than on occupational impacts ( UNEP 2009 ).

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